HISTORY OF TRIGG COUNTY
I - II - III - IV -
CHAPTER V.WAR HISTORY-THE REVOLUTIONARY PATRIOTS-SOME WHO SETTLED IN TRIOG COUNTY-OUR SECOND MISUNDERSTANDING WITH ENGLAND-BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS-WAR WITH MEXICO-TRIGG COUNTY'S PART IN IT-THE LATE CIVIL WAR-COMPANY G OF THE FOURTH INFANTRY -A SKETCH OF THEIR SERVICE-THE HANDFUL WHO SURVIVED THE WAR-COMPANIES B AND D OF THE EIGHTH-THEIR EXPLOITS AND ACHIEVEMENTS-COMPANY B OF THE SECOND CAVALRY-COMPANY D OF THE SAME REGIMENT-THE FEDERAL SIDE-IT IS RATHER BRIEF-THE FORTY-EIGHTH-OTHER VOLUNTEERS-BURNING THE CA DIZ COURT HOUSE-MURDER OF A NEGRO SOLDIER-A FEW INCIDENTS-PEACE. ETC., ETC.
BUCKLE, in his History of Civilization in England, startles the world with the announcement that the invention of gunpowder, "though a warlike contrivance, has in its results been eminently serviceable to the interests of peace." His argument is about as follows: 1. Its invention has made war more destructive to human life, thereby exciting the fears of would-be belligerents, and causing them to dread its issues; therefore it has been "eminently serviceable to the interests of peace."
2. Its invention has made war more expensive, thereby putting it out of reach as an everyday luxury, and making it only possible to the wealthier nations; therefore in this respect also it has been "eminently serviceable to the interests of peace."
3. By the same process of reasoning the invention of dynamite should have precipitated the millennium. Its greater destructiveness should have shocked the world into a paralysis of fear, and its greater expensiveness should have made war forever impossible to the richest.
No; the true solution of the problem of modern civilization lies else. where than in the invention of improved agencies and implements of destruction. We must go beyond and deeper. War is the outgrowth of human passion and pride, and the true conservators of peace must be sought for and found in those influences and agencies that correct and control these. The Christian religion, reaching down to the very fountain-source of man's being, and turning hate to love, covetousness to alms-giving, and selfishness to self-sacrifice, is alone such principle. In its enlightening and ennobling influences are to be found the prime factors of the present civilizations. Its very germ-life j8 to be found imbedded in the injunction, "Therefore, all things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them." The life and teachings of the Son of Mary are the very incarnation of peace, and under the benign influence of such example and teaching the moral conscience of the world has been educated to look upon war as an unmitigated evil, and its instigators as heartless tyrants and oppressors of the race.
War is always an aggression upon one side or the other; the stronger, from motives of cupidity and power, making encroachments upon the rights and privileges of the weaker, or the weaker seeking to revenge themselves upon the stronger.
In the war between the mother country and her colonies she was the aggressor. The King, backed by a venal Parliament, sought to impose onerous burdens of taxation upon the struggling colonists, while at the same time persistently refusing to concede to them the just and inalienable right of representation. The colonies insisted that taxation and representation were inseparable and should go together, and therefore that "taxes or subsidies of every Sort for the support of Government should be the voluntary tribute of the people through their representatives." The insistence upon this principle of taxation without representation by Parliament on the one hand, and its resistance by the colonies on the other, soon brought about the heroic struggle which finally resulted in the complete independence of the latter.
It is not the present purpose to recount any part of that eventful period-it was over and almost forgotten before this part of "the dark and bloody ground ' was thought of as a possible habitation-but to pre.. serve to the pages of history the names of some of those who were participants in its fortunes. After the was over and the people had again settled down to the more peaceful vocations of life, the growing importance of this portion of Kentucky began to attract the attention of many of the more adventurous spirits of Virginia, Georgia and the Carolinas. Many of the war-worn veterans of these and other States, by themselves or in groups, began to make their way to this, then a part of Christian County, and the contiguous portions of southwestern Kentucky. A few of these names have been preserved, and it is the pleasure of the historian to spread them upon these pages.
In the year 1792, Thomas Wadlington, of North Carolina, who had been a soldier under Gen. Nathaniel Greene, came West with his family and settled near Kent's Bridge on Little River, about five miles from the present site of Cadiz. All that is known of his war record, beside the mere fact that he was one of Greene's men, is that he participated in the battle of Guilford Court House under that distinguished officer. No doubt he was in the subsequent engagements at Camden, Ninety-six and Eutaw Springs, but there is no record remaining of the fact, and none living able to decide.
Another of Gen. Greene's veterans in the campaigns of North and South Carolina, and who came to the county in 1806, was James Thomas, father of Perry Thomas, now in his eighty-eighth year. James Thomas, beside being a good farmer, was an excellent citizen and thru of "the milk of human kindness." He settled on the place adjoining that on which his son Perry now resides, and continued to live there till the year 1832, when he died full of years, and was gathered to his fathers.
In 1811 Capt. Thomas Humphries, of Virginia, came to the county with his brother Absalem. He and Absalom and three other brothers had been in the patriot army, and had distinguished themselves on many a hard-fought field. Thomas was a Methodist preacher of much force and eloquence, and perhaps the most cultivated and accomplished scholar in the county at that day. Only one of the veterans who followed the fortunes of Gen. Francis Marion, " the Swamp Fox," is now recalled. John Grasty, of South Carolina, came to Christian in 1790, and settled in that portion now comprehended within the boundaries of Trigg County. Besides being a scarred and war-worn veteran of the Continental army, like Humphries he was a man of education and refinement, and for a long time taught one of the early schools.
The name of but one Revolutionary soldier appears as such upon the Trigg County records. In 1820, June 19, Thomas Owsley (indexed Woosley) made application for a pension, and produced in open court the following schedule of his property : "An old horse, one cow, one calf, two two-year-old heifers, fourteen sheep, two sows and seventeen pigs, six old pewter plates, five knives, as many forks, and some wooden utensils of little or no value."
Besides these, the names simply of James Barnum, Miles Hollowell, John Mayberry and Balaam Ezell, an old Baptist preacher, have been preserved. They were among the earlier settlers of Trigg, and were doubtless as gallant in war as they were afterward adventurous and enterprising in peace.
The War of 1812.-The humiliation and defeat of "the mother country" by her rebellious colonies left a bitter sting in her proud, imperious heart. Though acknowledging their independence, and outwardly maintaining a show of amity and good-fellowship, within their rankled feelings of wounded pride and deep resentment. These exhibited themselves from time to time in overt acts of aggression upon the high seas and elsewhere. in June, 1807, the British man-of-war Leopard fired into the United States frigate Chesapeake, killing three men and wounding eighteen more. This act of unprovoked hostility was, it is true, disavowed by the British Government, but again in 1811 the Little Belt, a British sloop-of-war, fired into the United States frigate President.
This time they did not fare so well, for the doughty Commodore (Rogers) replied by a broadside, and soon placed his antagonist hors de combat. About this time also the feeling of hostility toward England in this country was much aggravated by the Indian outbreaks in the Northwest, which were attributed directly to her instigation. Gen. William Henry Harrison promptly met and suppressed them for the time, but there was every indication of further trouble in the future, and much uneasiness was felt. At last the emissaries of the British Government became so bold as to seek to corrupt our own citizens, and one John Henry was found trying to foment sedition among certain disaffected classes in New England. The fact was communicated by President Madison to Congress in a special message, and taken in conjunction with the other acts of unfriendliness and aggression, and the frequent and forcible impressment of American seamen upon the high seas, finally led to a declaration of war upon the part of the United States Government. The people were much exasperated against the English, and everywhere the declaration of hostilities was received with demonstrations of hearty approval. in Kentucky much enthusiasm was manifested. The war spirit blazed forth, and over seven thousand volunteers at once tendered their services to the Government. In answer to a call for 1,500 by the Governor to join Gen. Hopkins at Louisville, over 2,000 responded. Among those from Trigg County, then a part of Christian, were Lieut. Hampton Wade (grandfather of Lieut. Robert Major of the late war), James Baradill and Jonas Mitchell, uncles to Perry Thomas, Stephen Boren, William Campbell and Asa Reddick. These gallant spirits,- or the most of them, followed the fortunes of Hopkins in his expeditions against the Kickapoos in Illinois, and the following November moved against the Indian villages on the Wabash in Indiana. It is not the present purpose to follow the varying fortunes of our arms in this war, though Kentucky perhaps contributed to its success more than any other State in the Union. Suffice it to say that, in the main, both on land and sea they were crowned with success, and in December, 1814, a treaty of peace was signed at Ghent, conceding to us all the points involved in the controversy. But the news of the treaty did not reach our shores till fifteen days after the battle of New Orleans had been fought and won.
On the 8th of January, 1815, Sir Edward Pakenham with some 12,000 soldiers and marines attacked Gen. Jackson, who was entrenched behind cotton bales at New Orleans. The result was a most brilliant victory for our arms. "Two thousand British soldiers led in a charge on Jackson's breastworks were left dead or wounded on the field. Pakenham himself was killed; Maj.Gen. Gibbs and Keane, the two officers next in command, were both wounded, the former mortally; while Jackson's loss was only seven killed and six wounded."*
Here also Trigg County was well represented. Among those of her sons who participated in the fight, under Col. Posey it is thought, were James Wade, a cousin of Hampton Wade; George Newton, familiarly known as "King Newton ;" James Saltzgiven; John Jones, an uncle by marriage of John L. Miller; James, father of Wimberly Thomas, who was wounded and subsequently, on his return home, died of his wounds; T. W. Hammond; Barnes and Henry Jones, brothers; Jerry Saunders, Jack Cotton, Winborn Futrell, William Ramey, David Cahoon, or Calhoun, Warren Clark, William Pitts, Robert Coleman, Henry Vinson, Christopher Brandon and William Rushing. Sergt. Lunsford Lindsay, father of Dr. Lev Lindsay, went from Orange County, Vs., under Capt. William Stevens, and served in the war, but where and under what circumstances is not known. He moved to Trigg a few years after, 1819, and was long identified with her best interests as a good and useful citizen.
The Mexican War.-After the termination of this second war with England a long and restful peace smiled upon the country, only interrupted from time to time by the fitful outbreaks of the Seminoles in Florida, and in 1832 of the Black Hawk war in the Northwest. Gen. Win-field Scott speedily put down the Winnebagoes under Black Hawk, and in 1837 Cl. Zachary Taylor succeeded in bringing the Seminoles to terms.
In this latter war with the Florida Indians Trigg County had one representative at least, in the person of Harrison Frizzell, who was also afterward in the war with Mexico.
The difference with Mexico had its origin in the openly-expressed sympathy, if not active aid, of the Americans with Texas in her struggle for independence. On the 12th of November, 1835, the latter, through her representatives at San Phulipe de Austin, declared her independence of Mexico, and set up a regular State government for herself. This brought on an engagement, first at Bexar, and then at Goliad, in both of which the Mexicans under Gen. Cos were beaten. Gen. Santa Anna, President or Dictator of Mexico, then moved on the Alamo with 7,500 men, and late in February, 1836, attacked the garrison. Col. Travis with 140 brave Texans defended the place, and for eleven days, in which Santa Anna lost 1,600 killed and wounded, succeeded in keeping them at bay. The defense was unprecedented in the annals of war, and at the time thrilled the whole nation with wonder and admiration. The place was finally carried by storm, and on the 16th of March the entire garrison was cruelly put to the sword by their cowardly captors. Among those who perished at Alamo were "the brave, eccentric and famous David Crockett, of Tennessee," and one o( Trigg County's gallant sons, Jesse Humphries, a descendant of the brothers Thomas and Absalom Humphries, of Revolutionary fame.
A second butchery followed shortly afterward at Goliad, where Col. Fanning and 300 of his men were cruelly put to death. These enormities upon the part of the Mexicans exasperated the American people to the very highest pitch of indignation. Texas, nothing daunted, and perhaps secretly instigated by the Americans, proceeded to adopt a Constitution for an independent republic, and elected David G. Burnett as President. Commissioners were sent to this and other countries, asking for recognition. in 1837 the United States recognized her independence, and in August of the same year she proposed to annex herself to the United States, but it was not till the 29th of December, 1845, that Congress acceded to her request. The Mexican Minister called for his passport and withdrew from the country, and Gen. Zachary Taylor was sent to the Rio Grande. Here on the 26th of April. 1846, hostilities began with the killing and capturing of Capt. Thornton and sixty-three men. A series of brilliant engagements began under Taylor at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palina. and later on under Scott at Vera Cruz, Cerro Gordo and other places, resulting in the capture of the city of Mexico on the 12th of September. 1847, and the subsequent submission of the Mexican Government to the forces of the United States.
In this war, through her Taylors, Clays. Crittendens, Prestons, Breckinridges, Butlers, Marshalls and others, Kentucky covered herself with glory. More than 1:3.700 men offered themselves as volunteers, though only about 5,000 or less had been called for as Kentucky's quota and could be accepted. Trigg County tendered one or more companies, but the quota being already made up they were declined. The companies were disbanded, but quite a number of the more adventurous spirits who had composed them hurried off to different points to seek enlistment in other commands. The first man to go was Lycurgus Edrington, now of Missouri, and he is said to have been the first man to volunteer from this Congressional District in any command. He was a man of fine physique, and made a brave and efficient soldier.
Shortly after Wiley Futrell, also in the late war under Col. Suggs of the Fiftieth Tennessee; James Thomas, Fifer; Alfred Boyd, Quartermaster, George Boyd, his son; Reuben Nance, Commissary; Owen McGinness, Gilliam M. Ezell, Alfred Martin, Robert and Frank Husk, Ezekiel Beard, George Orr, Griffin Lackman and Archie Bowie made application and were accepted in Company E, Fourth Kentucky Infantry, then being organized at Hickman, Ky. The officers of this company were George Cook, Captain; John Snyder, First Lieutenant; Edward Barbour, Second Lieutenant; Benjamin Egan, Third Lieutenant.
Six others, Edward Spiceland, Linn Bell, Alfred Sumner, Harrison Frizzell, John Ward and John Farleigh, arriving shortly afterward and finding the company full, engaged as wagoners, and in this capacity accompanied Gen. Taylor on his campaign into the interior of Mexico.
The organization of Capt. Cook's company being complete in October, 1847, it embarked with Company C, of Caldwell County, on board a steamer and proceeded to join Col. John S. Williams, Fourth Regiment of Kentucky Infantry at New Orleans. The officers of the Fourth were John S. Williams, Colonel; William Preston, Lieutenant-Colonel; and William T. Ward, Major. From New Orleans without delay, the regiment was embarked on a fast-sailing ship for Vera Cruz, where on their arrival they were assigned to duty in the brigade under Gen. William 0. Butler. Gen. Butler began his march to the City of Mexico in November, but before they could reach that point it had surrendered to the forces under Gen. Scott. With the fall of the city the war closed, and after a few days the troops were disbanded and returned home.
Though not in any engagement the company lost heavily from measles, dysentery and other "camp" diseases. Griffin Laekman died and was buried at Jalapa, Alfred Martin and Ezekiel Beard died on their return to Vera Cruz, George Orr died and was buried at the head of Wolf Island, and Robert Husk died at Smithland. The body of the latter was brought on to Trigg, where it was buried with appropriate honors by his comrades and a large concourse of sorrowing citizens. The balance of the company was mustered out at Louisville, August, 1848, and on its return was welcomed home with a splendid banquet spread in a grove near the town of Cadiz.
The Great Civil War Between the States.-It would be interesting to go back to the beginning and trace out step by step the cause or causes that led up to this great struggle, but this has been done by abler pens, and the reader is referred to Alexander Stephens' History of the United States as a fair and impartial view of the subject. Though there were many secondary causes, the war had its origin primarily in the introduction of African slavery into the Colonies. Slavery was the germ-seed of the deadly up as that, planted in the virgin soil of the Colonies, grew with the growth of years and finally spread its blighting shadows over the whole continent. It was the infectious virus that, injected into the veins of that youthful people, ultimately resulted in the poisoning of the whole body politic of the full-grown nation. Nor is it a question of responsibility as to its introduction, nor yet as to its agitation by the friends and champions of either aide. The future historian must and will decide that both were wrong; the North in making war on the reserved rights and constitutional prerogatives of the Southern slave-owner, and the South in resorting to questionable and suicidal methods of redress in secession and revolution. It was a fatal mistake on both sides, and entailed great loss and much woe and misery upon the whole race. The years of heated agitation of the subject of slavery both in and out of Congress finally brought matters to the culminating point, when, in 1860, Abraham Lincoln, of Illinois, and Hannibal Hamlin, of Maine, as representatives of the Anti-slavery party of the North, were elected President and Vice-President. The South looked on it as an open declaration of hostilities upon the part of the North, and in the following December the State of South Carolina met in Convention at Charleston and passed an ordinance of secession. This ordinance cited as reasons for the act the fact that "the States of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin and Iowa" (all of which had voted for Lincoln and Hamliri) "had enacted laws which either nullified the acts of Congress for the rendition of fugitives from service or rendered useless any attempt to execute them, and that Iowa and Ohio had refused to surrender fugitives from justice charged with murder, and with inciting servile insurrection in the John Brown raid as well as the danger to be apprehended from the centralizing doctrines and principles of the party soon to come into power in the Executive Department of the Federal Government."
This act of secession upon the part of South Carolina was soon followed by similar acts upon the part of Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas. A Congress of Southern States was called to meet at Montgomery, Ala., on the 4th day of February, 1861, and on the same day a Peace Congress in Washington City, by the friends of peace in both North and South.
In the latter many notable speeches were made by representative men of both sections, but that which produced the profoundest sensation was made by the Hon. Salmon P. Chase, of Ohio, the accredited Secretary of the Treasury of the incoming administration. Speaking for the party that had just elected Mr. Lincoln, he declared that the North would never consent to the decision of the Supreme Court in reference to the extension of slavery into the Territories, nor yet to the constitutional provision for the rendition of "fugitives from service" where such fugitives sought asylum within their jurisdiction. The effect of this declaration was a confirmation of the fears of the more moderate slave-holding States, and measures were accordingly taken by all of them except Kentucky to follow the example of South Carolina and the other seceding States.
The Congress was held at Montgomery also, and a Constitution for one year adopted, with Jefferson Davis, of Mississippi, as President, and Alexander H. Stephens, of Georgia, as Vice-President of the new Confederation. The State of Kentucky was rent and torn by conflicting opinions. Three parties sprang up-the Southern, favoring secession, the Northern, favoring union at all hazards, and the Neutrality party, opposing both. The latter were in power, and dictated the policy of the States. But when once hostilities were fairly begun, they found themselves unable to prevent the invasion of the State by the armies of either side. Intense excitement prevailed everywhere; towns, cities, communities, churches, and even families were divided in sentiment. Both Northern and Southern sympathizers rushed to arms, the former establishing their camps of instruction and rendezvous at " Camp Dick Robinson," Kentucky, and "Camp Joe Holt," near Jefferson, Md., and the latter at "Camps Boone" and ' Burnett" near Clarksville, Tenn.
The people of Trigg partook largely of the general excitement, and being mostly Southern, such of them as designed taking part in the coming struggle repaired at once to the Southern camps. On the 1st day of July, 1861, a company composed of some of the best young men of Trigg County, rendezvoused at Canton, on the Cumberland River, under the following officers: Dr. J. L. Price, Captain; John Cunningham, First Lieutenant; John T. Baker, Second Lieutenant, and Francis M. Baker, Third Lieutenant. Thus organized the company numbered about ninety-three men rank and file. Among them were the following-named noncommissioned officers and privates: Robert W. Major, G. M. Ezell, A. L. Wallace, Z. Hughes, A. W. Wadlington, II. D. Wallace, Robert Dew, W. W. Dew, W. L. Durrett, W. H. Anderson, W. A. Atwood, Tandy Battoe, W. H. Braberry, J. W. Bell, J. F. Baker, J. G. Baynham, Linn Boyd, W. T. Boyd, Franc M. Bounds, J. T. Batt, R. A. Batt. William Bridges, M. C. Cunningham, Sr., M. C. Cunningham, Jr., E. A. Cunningham, G. G. Cunningham, Robert Calhoun. D. Cannon, W. F. Dew, W. B. Eidson, Franc M. Ferguson, J. 0. Ferguson, F. M. Ferguson, J. Q. Foster, S. P. B. Faughen. J. V. Gant, M. Gresham, G. E. Grace, Richard Grace, S. lodge, F. M. Hughes, H. Hughes, D. Hale, Riley Herald, F. P. Ingram, G. Johnson, S. A. Jefferson, N. Lyon, J. T. Lancaster, Richard Mayberry, William Meredith, G. W. Mitchell, J. F. Pritchard, Richard Pogue, H. Pister, W. W. Ryan, M. Rogers, A. P. Rutledge, D. Ray, R. P. Sanford, Monroe Sears, A. Smith, William Sills, T. R. Tyer, E. Timmons, A. C. Thomas, W. S. Williams, H. Williamson, J. B. Winn, W. K. Wallis, Walter Watkins and S. A. Yarbrough.
Both officers and men in physique and intelligence were far above the average, and when uniformed and under arms were as fine a looking body of men as ever went on dress parade. As to their prowess in battle the following recital will suffice to show:
On the 2d of July, 1861, they took up the line of march to "Camp Burnett," Tenn., where, on August 15, they were mustered into the Confederate service for a period of one year. Here, as Company G, they were assigned to duty in the Fourth Regiment Kentucky Infantry, with Robert P. Trabue, Colonel; Andrew R. Hynes, Lieutenant-Colonel, and Thomas B. Monroe, Major. About the 20th of September, the Fourth moved into Kentucky, and went into camp at Bowling Green where, with the Second, Third, Fifth (afterward Ninth) and Sixth Infantry, Helm's First Regiment of Cavalry, and the batteries of Graves and Cobb, they were brigaded under Gen. Simon Bolivar Buckner.
At this point, during the several months of their stay, nothing of consequence occurred beyond the usual daily routine of camp-life, guard, drill and picket duty. On the 16th of November Gen. Buckner was promoted to the command of a division, and Brig.-Gen. John C. Breckinridge took command of the brigade. On the 20th of January, 1862, the Second Regiment, under Col. Roger Hanson, with Graves' Battery of Light Artillery, was detached and sent under Buckner to re-inforce the threatened garrison at Fort Donelson. Here on the 13th of February, 1862, Gen. Grant made his first attack by land and water, and after three days of stubborn resistance, being entirely surrounded, Gen. Buckner surrendered the forces under his command.
In the meantime, about the first of the month, the disastrous battle of Fishing Creek had occurred, resulting in the defeat of Crittenden and the killing of Zollicoffer, and Kentucky being no longer tenable, on the 11th of February Gen. Johnston began his retreat on Nashville. At Nashville news of the surrender of Forts Donelson and Henry first reached the command, and with bowed heads and heavy hearts they continued their retreat to Burnsville, in northern Mississippi. At Corinth a re-organization of the army took place: Breckinridge was promoted to the command of a division consisting of the "Kentucky Brigade," Statham's Brigade, Bowen's Brigade, Forrest's Regiment of Cavalry, Morgan's Squadron, a company of cavalry under Capt. Phil B. Thompson, which had reported to Gen. Breckinridge as a bodyguard, or headquarter scouts, and the light artillery pertaining to each organization. It was styled the "Reserve Corps." and as such was to support Gen. Leonidas Polk in the coming fight. Moving out from camp on Sunday morning. the 6th of April, the enemy were encountered at Shiloh, near Pittsburg Landing. And here for the first time, this part of the brigade went under fire. They received their "baptism" with all the coolness and self-possession of trained veterans, and it is no exaggeration to say, from the first shock to the last their united charge was never withstood. Early in the action Breckinridge assigned the command of the brigade to Cal. Trabue, and himself superinterxded the movements of the corps on the right. At half-past 9 o'clock A. M., they came under the enemy's fire in an open field one and a half miles from Pittsburg Landing. The enemy were deploying into line and while so doing the brigade opened upon them. At this point the combat raged with varying success for one hour and a quarter, when Stewart's and a part of Anderson's Brigades coming up to support, Trabue made a charge completely routing the enemy from his position. The loss of the brigade here in officers and men was very heavy, but that of the enemy was far greater. The command encountered was composed of two Ohio, one Missouri and an Iowa regiment, and their loss in killed, wounded and prisoners was fearful. One regiment alone, the Forty-sixth Ohio, lost in killed and wounded four or five hundred. About four or five hundred yards on a Missouri regiment was encountered, charged and dispersed, and a full battery of guns captured. Pressing on through the dense under-growth they soon encountered Prentiss, who was being pressed on the right by that portion of the corps under Breckinridge, and charging, they both entered his camps about the same time. Completely beaten and hemmed in on all sides, after a desperate struggle the gallant Prentiss surrendered his sword. This action occurred near nightfall, and darkness coming on the brigade returned and occupied his camps. Tired, worn and hungry the men here found plenty to oat and drink, and after much "looting" lay down to rest. In this day's fight seventy-five were killed and about three hundred and fifty wounded. Early the next morning (Monday) the fight was renewed. Moving to the front beyond Shiloh Church, the Fourth together with the Fourth Alabama were ordered by Gen. Bragg to charge the enemy who were in and near a house used as a forage-depot. Four times back and forth was the ground crossed and re-crossed, but all in vain. The enemy were too strong for them, and failing to receive support they were compelled to fall back a short distance to the rear. Reunited to the rest of the command and the enemy moving to the right, they were marched in pursuit, and again engaged them near the Shiloh Church, and about one hundred and fifty yards to the right. And here Col. Trabue in his report says: "The fragmentary forces of both armies had concentrated at this time around Shiloh Church, and worn out as were our troops the field was here successfully contested for two hours, when as if by mutual consent both sides desisted from the struggle."
This as recounted was the part taken by the Trigg County boys in their first battle. Their loss in the two days' fight was nine men killed and fourteen wounded. Capt. Trice was injured by the explosion of a shell, and received a minie in his leg, and later on was captured by Capt. Jeffries, of the Fourth Kentucky, Federal. He was carried to Indianapolis, and after to Johnson Island. where he remained till exchanged at Vicksburg in the fall of 1862. After the war, Capt. Jeffries magnanimously returned him his sword, having advertised in the Courier-Journal to find his whereabouts.
Re-inforcements for the Federals coming up under Gen. Buell, the Confederates drew off the next day and returned to Corinth. Breckinridge remained behind with his corps and successfully protected the retreat. After the battle, Lieut. Cunningham resigned, and the company having been so fearfully decimated, was consolidated with Companies K and I of the same regiment.
From Corinth the brigade marched to Tupelo, Miss., and thence with the balance of the corps to Vicksburg. Here for two months, exposed to heavy and frequent bombardments, the corps successfully defended the city from the combined attack of both army and fleet. On the 27th of July the enemy disappeared, and after a short rest, Breckinridge, with about 6,000 men, the ram "Arkansas" to co-operate by river, was sent against Baton Rouge. Brig.- Gen. Ben Hardin Helm was placed in command of the brigade, but receiving a severe fall from his horse which disabled him, the command devolved upon Col. Thomas I-I. Hunt of the Ninth. Early in the fight Col. Hunt received a severe wound through both thighs and from this on to the close of the action Capt. Buckner, of Breckinridge's staff, was in command. The Fourth was on the right, and encountering the Fourteenth Maine, drove them under the riverbank to the protection of the gun-boats. In this charge one 0f Trigg's gallant boys, Douglas Cannon, was killed and several others wounded. The Arkansas" failed to co-operate, having broken some part of her machinery on the way down, and thus, though the land attack was successful, Breckinridge was compelled to draw off.
The corps was then moved to Port Hudson, which they commenced to fortify, but in a short time were ordered to Jackson, Miss. Here the sick and wounded who had been left at Vicksburg and elsewhere rejoined the command. The division moved by rail up the Mississippi Central to Cold Water Creek, above Holly Springs, and disembarked at that point on the morning of the 11th of September. From here, by order of President Davis, Breckinridge, leaving all but the Fourth, Sixth and Ninth Regiments,' a Tennessee brigade, a company or two of cavalry, and the batteries of Cobb and McClung, started on the 19th of September to overtake Bragg in Kentucky. The Kentucky Brigade was again temporarily assigned to the command of Col. Trabue, in the absence of Gen. Helm. Reaching Knoxville on the 3d of Oct9ber they found the Second Regiment and Graves' Battery, which had been exchanged, awaiting them. Hanson, being the senior Colonel, took command, and at once pushed on in the direction of the Gap, but when near Maynardsville received intelligence of Bragg's retreat, and at once returned to Knoxville. On the 23d they were moved by rail to Shell Mound, and from thence on the 28th to Murfreesboro, where they went into camp. The next movement of the brigade was on Nashville to co-operate with Morgan, who was to destroy the depots, cars and other structures at Edgefield. Morgan was only partially successful, and the force returned.
In December the brigade was marched to Baird's Mills on the road to Hartsville, and the Second and Ninth detached and sent with Morgan to attack Hartsville. The movement was successful, the enemy were completely surprised, and more than 2,000 officers and men captured. Returning with these to Baird's Mills, the Fourth was put in charge of the prisoners, and conducted them back to Murfreesboro.
Here the company was again re-organized with Trice as Captain, J. F. Baker, First Lieutenant, Robert W. Major, Second Lieutenant, and Gilliam M. Ezell, Brevet Second Lieutenant.
On Sunday, the 28th of December, Bragg moved out to the crossing of Stone River to confront Rosencrans. The Kentucky Brigade was thrown forward to take position on a commanding eminence with its left resting on the river. The Fourth reached down to the river's edge, and the other regiments were formed on the right. Company G was sent out in front as skirmishers, and on the day of the general battle (Wednesday) brought on the engagement. Two days after, at the same point, and just before the Kentucky Brigade was ordered forward into the memorable "Slaughter Pen," Lieut. Major was ordered to take a portion of his company and dislodge the enemy from a house in front near the river bank. Taking H. D. Wallace and William Brayberry with him, be crept along under the bank till within a short distance of the house, and then at a given signal (the firing of a shell into the building), he rushed with his comrades to the house. At the same time Captain Trice with the balance of the company, and Captain Utterback's Company of the Sixth dashed forward upon the building from the front. The enemy were quickly driven out and Major rushed in and set fire to it. Their object accomplished the company returned to the skirmish line through a perfect hail of bullets. In the charge on the house the gallant Utterback of the Sixth was killed.
The next fight in which the brigade participated was at Jackson, Miss., whither, the following spring, Breckinridge had been sent to inforce Joe Johnston. After the fall of Vicksburg, Johnston returned to Jackson, and awaited the coming of the enemy. On the 10th he came up, and invested the place, and on the 12th, after more or less desultory fighting, he made a serious charge on Breckinridge's position near Pearl River. The charge was received by the brigade, supported by Stovalt's Brigade and Cobb's Battery, and after a short, sharp fight, in which the enemy were roughly handled, they retired with the loss of 200 killed and 25Q wounded and prisoners.
On the 18th Johnston retired to Camp Hurricane, about eight miles from Morton. Here the command rested till the 26th of .August, when they were ordered to proceed by way of Mobile to Tyner's Station, near the Chickamauga. On the 18th of September they bivouacked on the Chickamauga, and on the next day were led into the fight on the left. Company G here had the honor of assisting in capturing a battery which they charged from the skirmish line. That night they were moved to the right to the support of Gen. Polk, and at daylight went into the fight. The battle raged all day with varying results, but at night it was terminated by the complete route of the enemy. Had there been one hour more of daylight for the pursuit, there is no doubt but the entire army would have been captured. But the victory was not without heavy loss on the part of the brigade. Of 1,300 who went in, sixty-three were killed and 408 wounded. Gen. Helm fell early in the action on the second day, and Col. Joe Lewis of the Sixth took his place. Company G lost, two killed and fourteen wounded. In the battle of Missionary Ridge, which soon followed, the brigade was in the center near Bragg's headquarters on the first day, but moved td the support of Cleburn on the right. On the second day it assisted in the repulse of the enemy, but without much loss.
Only one man fell in Company G, W. D. Wallace, but that one was a "host within himself." He fell, where he was ever to be found, at his post.
On the retreat to Dalton, the brigade, with Cleburn's Division, protected the flying columns of Bragg, and finally succeeded in checking the enemy at Ringgold Gap. At Dalton, Bragg was relieved by Johnston, and the whole army went into winter quarters. The brigade, though much rejoiced, as was, indeed, all the rest of the army, at the exchange of general officers; were much grieved at the loss of their gallant division commander, John C. Breckin ridge, who was transferred to another department. Gen. William B. Bate (Old Grits), of Tennessee, was assigned to the command of the division, and Col. Joe Lewis promoted to the command of the brigade. On the 6th of May, 1864, the campaign opened at Rocky Face Gap, and Sherman began his series of flanking movements.
After a few days' skirmishing and maneuvering in front of the Gap, he attempted to turn Johnston's left, but the wily Confederate was in his front awaiting him at Resaca. Here Lewis' brigade received the brunt of the fight, repelling two gallant charges in handsome style, and standing firm under a furious cannonading. The Second and Fourth were principally engaged and lost heavily. The Trigg boys were among the suffer. era. Lieut. Major was wounded on the chin by a fragment of shell, two men-Mike Rogers and Francis M. Forguson-killed, and five or six wounded. Forguson was a brave man, and accounted one of the best shots in the division. He was a sharpshooter, and from. the Gap to Resaca is said to have killed twenty-five officers, principally mounted. He had been on the skirmish line sharpshooting, and was returning over the works when shot through the head. He was a cousin of the present Judge J. R. Grace. Major, who had been in command of the company, was sent to the hospital at Newnan, Ga., and Second Lieut. A. L. Wallace took command. He was killed in the next battle, 28th, at Dallas, leading a charge on the enemy's works. After his fall the command devolved on Orderly-Sergt. W. A. Atwood, who had charge of the company to Kenesaw Mountain. Here both Baker and Major returned from hospital and took their respective places in the company. The company participated in all or most of the engagements of this campaign from Dalton to Atlanta and Jonesboro, Ga., where on the first day Capt. Baker was wounded, and on the second, Major both wounded and taken prisoner. The same ball that wounded Major also wounded Sergt. Wallace, and both fell into the hands of the enemy. Besides several others slightly wounded here, William Meredith was killed. Major made his escape from the cars between Wartrace and Murfreesboro, Tenn., and after many perils and hardships returned to the command at Newnan, Ga.
After Jonesboro the brigade, which had been exchanged at Rough-and-Ready, under special cartel, was mounted, and when Sherman started on his "march to the sea," disputed every inch of the way to Savannah, and then through South Carolina, till the final surrender of Lee and Johnston. They were paroled at Washington, Ga., May 7, 1865. Only thirty-seven out of seventy-five-less than half-remained to be paroled, and not a single man of these but had from one to five wounds on his person.
Dr. Trice, who had been compelled to resign on account of blindness, superinduced by the shock of the shell at Shiloh, and other causes, had joined his father at Marion, Ala., where he remained till 1866, when he returned to Canton.
Companies B and D, Eighth Regiment Kentucky Infantry. A bout the beginning of September, 1861, two other Confederate companies were organized in the county, one at Noah's Spring, Montgomery Co., Tenn., under the following officers: A. C. Buckner, Captain; William Henry, First Lieutenant; Preston H. Davis, Second Lieutenant; F. G. Terry, Third Lieutenant, and numbering eighty-five men, rank and file; the other at Wallonia, under Jabez Bingham, Captain; J. S. Wall, First Lieutenant; E. S. Pool, Second Lieutenant; and William Miller, Third Lieutenant, and numbering 104 men. After remaining at Noah's Spring some two weeks the one under Buckner moved to Hopkinsville and went into camp at the fair grounds, where they were assigned to the Eighth Regiment of Kentucky Infantry as Company D. The other company remained at Wallonia till about the 23d of October, when they also moved to Hopkinsville and joined the Eighth Regiment as Company B.
Shortly after the arrival of these two companies the Eighth was reorganized with Henry C. Burnett as Colonel, Reuben Ross Lieutenant-Colonel, and First Lieutenant William Henry of Company D promoted to Major. On the promotion of Henry, Lieutenants Davis and Terry were promoted in turn, and George Wilford elected Brevet Second Lieutenant. Another change in the regiment took place in a short while. Lieut.-Col. Rosa resigned and H. P. Lyon was promoted from Captain of Artillery to fill the vacancy. He joined the regiment at Providence, Tenn., January, 1862, while en route for Fort Donelson, where they were ordered to join the brigade under Gen. Clark. Before reaching Fort Donelson First Lieut. Wall, of Company B, died, and J. W. Brown was elected to fill the vacancy. The brigade under Clark was assigned to a position on the left of the "Winne Ferry" road, and for two days were under a heavy and galling fire from the shore batteries. On the morning of the third day, Saturday, they were sent to relieve Floyd's Brigade which had been detached and sent to another part of the field to make a flank movement. The brigade were not long in their new position before they were charged by the enemy in heavy force. Though for the first time face to face with an enemy the men deported themselves with the steadiness of veterans. The charge was gallantly repulsed, and $ countercharge made in turn in which the enemy were driven, the famous Swarta's battery captured, and a number of prisoners taken. Among others in this day's fight Lieut. Terry was wounded and sent back to the hospital at Nashville. On Sunday morning before the surrender Capt. Buckner and Lieut. Davis and some eight or ten men made their escape from the fort, and with Terry fell in with Johnston's army as they retreated through Tennessee. The rest of the command were sent to prison at Camps Morton and Chase, where they remained till the following September, when they were exchanged at Vicksburg. At Jackson, Miss., shortly after being exchanged, the Eighth was re..organized with Lyon, Colonel; A. R. Shacklett, Lieutenant-Colonel; Jabez Bingham, Major; and John Couch, Adjutant. The companies were reorganized as follows: Company D, F. G. Terry, Captain; George Wilford, First Lieutenant; Lee Turner, Second Lieutenant; W. D. Smith, Brevet Lieut3nant; and Joseph H. Mitchell, Orderly Sergeant; Company B, J. W. Brown, Captain; W. L. Dunning, First Lieutenant; J. E. Kelly, Second Lieutenant; and J. R. Gilfoy, Brevet Second Lieutenant. From Jackson the regiment was ordered to Holly Springs under Gen. Baldwin, Tilghman'e Division, to intercept Grant. Grant coming up, Tilghman retreated to Coffeeville, Miss., where he encountered and repulsed the enemy under Gen. Lee. After this the command went into winter quarters at Grenada. In the spring of 1863 they were sent to re-inforce the garrison at Fort Pemberton, at the head of the Yazoo River, where, in about a month, the enemy withdrawing, were sent to the assistance of Gen. Bowen at Grand Gulf. On the march to Grand Gulf the Eighth was assigned to Buford's Brigade of Loring's Division, and on reaching Big Black River found Gen. Bowen, who had been compelled to retreat.
Captain Terry's company were mounted at Big Black Bridge, where they had been sent to intercept the enemy's cavalry, and here, until Pemberton had gathered his forces in hand, defended this important crossing.
In the general battle which ensued at Champion Hill, the Eighth took an active part, and here Lieut. Kelly of Company B was severely wounded. Pemberton was defeated and fell back on the Big Black. The enemy pursued with vigor, and Pemberton continued his retreat to Vicksburg. At the "bridge" Col. Lyon got possession of a battery, and being an experienced artillerist succeeded in holding the Federals in check till the rest of the army were safely drawn off. This accomplished, he turned and contested the balance of the way to the works at Vicksburg. The Eighth ,remained in Vicksburg only about a week, when being mounted Col. Lyon was ordered to make his way through to Grant's rear. This perilous mission was successfully accomplished in the night, and an immediate dash made on Raymond, where a lot of disabled Federals were captured who had been wounded in a recent fight between Gens. Lew Wallace and Gregg. Lyon operated on the enemy's rear with much success till Gen. Johnston came up with his forces to relieve the siege of Vicksburg, when he reported to that officer. On the latter's advance from Jackson, the Eighth was again dismounted and assigned to Buford's Brigade. At the Big Black, news of the surrender being received, the Confederates fell back on Jackson and awaited the coming of Sherman. Here the command participated in all the engagements pending the in, vestment of the place, and after, near the "Fair Grounds," with two other regiments of the brigade, made a stand against a much larger force, that elicited the praise of the Commanding General. General Johnston, who witnessed the fight, is said to have pronounced it the most gallant and stubborn resistance he had witnessed during the war. Many of the enemy fell within ten or twenty feet of the Confederate lines. After the evacuation of Jackson, the brigade fell back with the army to Forrest's Station, where they remained inactive till September, when with Gen. Loring they moved to Canton, and afterward, in February, to Demopolis, Ala., to intercept Sherman, who was moving on Meridian. Here the three Kentucky regiments of Buford's Brigade were mounted and sent to Forrest at Gainesville, and Buford being promoted to the Second Division, Col. A. P. Thompson took command; and here, also, companies D, C, and F, were consolidated, with the following officers: J. W. Brown, Captain; Logan Field, First Lieutenant; W. L. Dunning, Second Lieutenant; - Rowland, Third Lieutenant. Capt. Terry was assigned to duty as Ordnance Officer of the brigade. Thus organized, the command moved to join the rest of Forrest's forces at Tupelo, Miss., preparatory to a raid into Kentucky and west Tennessee. On this raid, at Paducah, through some mistake Thompson made an unsupported attack upon the fort with his brigade alone. In the charge, Col. Thompson was killed by a shell, and some 100 were killed and wounded. The fatal shell also killed a horse ridden by Capt. Al. McGoodwin of the Third Kentucky, who was riding on one side of the Colonel, while the Colonel's flesh and blood were scattered over Capt. Terry, who rode on the other. The charge on the fort was repulsed, but Lieut. Logan Field, with a portion of his company, charged and took the Marine Hospital on the right, from which they fired a plunging shot into the fort, till dislodged by the enemy's gunboats. Night coming on, after supplying themselves plentifully with commissaries', quartermaster's and hospital stores, the brigade drew off with Forrest into western Kentucky. Here the Kentuckians were permitted to return to their homes to rest, recruit for a time, and afterward rendezvous at Trenton, Tenn. From this point, designing to attack Fort Pillow, Forrest, about the 10th or 12th of April, sent them to make a feint on Paducah. Arriving in front of the town, they made a dash in, capturing a few prisoners and about 100 head of horses and mules, and then rejoined Forrest at Jackson, Tenn. From here, after a short rest, Forrest moved to Tupelo, Miss., and was again about to return into Tennessee, when he learned of Sturgis' raid into that part of the State. Turning, he met him at Guntown or Bryce's Cross-Roads, and with his usual impetuosity charged at the head of his columns. Here Lyon, who had been on detached service and was promoted, returned in time to command the brigade in the fight. He was the first to strike the enemy's advance, driving them back on the main body, and holding them for six or eight hours till the other commands came up. About 1 P. M. the fight became general and the enemy gave way. Brown's company of Trigg boys had the honor of capturing a piece of artillery in their first charge; also two or three ordnance wagons, which supplied them with necessary ammunition. Capt. Terry, Acting Inspector-General on Buford's staff, and one other were the only staff officers on the field. Sturgis, driven at all points, was soon in complete rout, losing not less than 3,000 killed, wounded and captured, seventeen cannon and eighteen caissons, 450,000 rounds of cartridges, 350 wagons and ambulances, more than 1,000 horses and mules, six months' medical supplies, forty days' rations, and two wagon loads of "John Barleycorn." The latter it is supposed was carried along as a kind of "spiritual defense" against the more formidable enemy of that section-malaria.
The subsequent operations of the Eighth under Forrest in Mississippi were at Pontotoc, Old Harrisburg and Town Creek, in July. On the 4th October, 1864, they were detached and sent into west Tennessee to gather up the troops under Cal. L. A. Sypert, who had been operating in Kentucky, and was then at Paris, Tenn. After this they reported to Forrest at Mt. Pleasant, Tenn., and were permitted by him to return with Col. Lyon into southwestern Kentucky, to rest and recruit. While on this visit, Lyon made an attack on the garrison at Hopkinsville, commanded by Col. Sam Johnson, and captured, with the loss of one man killed, thirty or forty prisoners, and seventy-five or eighty horses and mules. He next attacked and captured the garrison at Eddyville, and then without interruption crossed the Cumberland above Clarksville, and rejoined Forrest at Paris, Tenn. The next move was on Fort Heiman, where four steamboats, one gun and about two companies of furloughed men were captured. Next at Johnsonville, on the Tennessee River, where were captured and destroyed four gun-boats, fifteen steamboats, twenty-three barges, and two warehouses, supposed to contain over two and a half million dollars' worth of army supplies.
In November Lyon with a portion of the Eighth was detached and sent into southwestern Kentucky to collect up stragglers and create advertisement in favor of Hood, who was approaching to the attack of Nashville. During his absence Col. Ed Crossland took command of the balance of the brigade, with Capt. Terry Acting Assistant Adjutant-General on his staff. Hood starting on the march to Nashville, Forrest moved to join him at Florence, Ala. On this campaign they took part in the following engagements: Lawrenceburg, Butler's Creek, where Col. Crossland was wounded and the command devolved on Col. W. W. Faulkner, of the Twelfth Kentucky, Campbellsville, Columbia, Maury's Mills, Spring Hill, Franklin, Nashville, Smyrna, Murfreesboro and all the subsequent encounters on the retreat. At Corinth, Miss., Forrest halted to rest both men and horses, and the Kentucky Brigade went into camp near Okolona at the same time. Here they remained from January to March, 1865, when they rendezvoused at West Point, Miss., and thence moved to intercept the raid of Wilson on Selma and Demopolis, Ala. At Montevailo the enemy were encountered and a three-days' running fight ensued, in which nearly oneohalf of the Eighth were either killed, wounded or captured. The balance escaping, returned to West Point, Miss., where news of the surrender of Lee and Johnston being received, Forrest sent the Eighth to Columbus to guard stores. And here, on the 15th of May, 1865, the Eighth, decimated by disease, capture and death to a mere skeleton, surrendered to the enemy and were paroled. Of the Trigg boys there remained F. G. Terry, Joseph H. Mitchell, Taylor Ethridge, A.B. Crawley, Joseph Dabney, Zenas Alexander, Reuben Stallions and Richard Lester. The rest were either killed, wounded, captured, or deserted.
Company B, Second Regiment of Kentucky Cavalry.-The next company to organize in Trigg for the Confederate service was at Wallonia, August 1, 1862. This company was composed of about eighty-four men, rank and file, and was officered as follows: G. G. Goodwin, Captain; James Mitchell, First Lieutenant; Samuel Martin, Second Lieutenant, and Walter McChesney, Third Lieutenant. About ten days after being organized they joined the Second Regiment under Cal. Thomas Wood-ward, at Clarksville, Tenn, and were with this gallant officer in his subsequent operations in southwestern Kentucky and middle Tennessee. Having enlisted for a term of one year, they were so tendered to the Confederate Government by Woodward in December, but being declined, disbanded, and either returned home or scattered out into other commands.
J. T. Greer of this company, after the disbandment, joined McDonald's Battalion of Tennessee Cavalry, which he subsequently commanded, and under Gen. Van Dorri operated in north Mississippi, west Tennessee and Alabama. Was in the battles of Holly Springs, Corinth and Iuka, and after the death of Van Dora was assigned to Chalmers' Brigade of Forrest's Division. Under Forrest he took part in the battles of Guntown, Okolona, Memphis, Fort Pillow, etc. He surrendered with his command at Jackson, Miss., June 5, 1865.
Company D, Second Regiment of Kentucky Cavalry.-This was the next company, largely composed of Trigg County boys, to organize for the Confederate service. It was composed of about eighty-seven men, rank and file, and rendezvoused on the Summer farm, on the road between Cadiz and Hopkinsville. The organization took place in September, 1862, with the following officers : Captain, E. A. Slaughter; First Lieutenant, Ben F. Bacon; Second Lieutenant, William M. Campbell ; Third Lieutenant, - Wallis. A few days after they joined Woodward at Hopkinsville and with him operated in southwestern Kentucky and middle Tennessee. In December, 1862, Capt. Slaughter and Lieut. Wallis resigned their positions, and Dr. John Cunningham was elected Captain, and R. W. Roach, Third Lieutenant. Shortly after the company was tendered the Confederacy for twelve months, but being declined, also disbanded. About thirteen men remained under Lieut. Camp. bell, and enlisted for a period of three years; the remainder scattered out into other commands or returned home. The little nucleus remaining with Campbell from time to time received accessions, till in the following February, 1863, they had grown to a full company, and were organized under the following officers: Given Campbell, Captain; J. M. Jones, First Lieutenant; William Campbell, Second Lieutenant, and S. P. Martin, Third Lieutenant. Under Forrest the company took part in the campaign through western Tennessee, and were engaged at Lexington, Jackson, Humboldt and Huntington, Miss. When the Murfreesboro campaign commenced in 1863, they were in front of Rosecrans' army from Nashville to Stone River, disputing every inch of the way, and when the battle came on were on the left of Bragg's army as "flankers." They were subsequently in the battles of Chickamauga, McMinnville, Farming-ton, Dug Gap, Snake Creek Gap, Resaca, Kenesaw and Peach-Tree Creek, and when Stoneman made his bold but unfortunate raid into Georgia went in pursuit, and had the honor of capturing the redoubtable leader himself who surrendered to Capt. William M. Campbell in person. After this they were at Triune, Tenn., then at Saltville, W. Va., then back to Georgia again to confront Sherman on his march to the sea. On this memorable campaign through Georgia and South Carolina they were in daily conflict with both infantry and cavalry, performing, with the rest of Wheeler's command, perfect prodigies of endurance and valor.
On the Congaree, under Col. William C. P. Breckinridge, they made one of the last fights of the war, in which the gallant Captain of the company, Campbell, was severely wounded.
At Charlotte, N. C., the command fell in with President Davis and his party, and had the honor of acting as his escort to the final capture.
These were the only regular commands supplied by Trigg County to the Confederate cause, but there were many who went out singly or in squads at various times during the progress of the war, of whom no account has been taken. It is estimated that, first and last, between. eight hundred and a thousand men took part in the struggle on the southern side. Notably among those who joined other commands may be mentioned Capt. Ben D. Terry of Company F, First Regiment of Kentucky Cavalry, afterward Morgan's command, Dr. Livingston Lindsay, Surgeon of the Forty-ninth Regiment Tennessee Infantry, and afterward of McDonald's Tennessee Battalion, P. C. Harrell, who went out with a squad of twenty-nine or thirty men in November, 1861, and joined the Fiftieth Tennessee, and afterward promoted to Second Lieutenant of Company F of that regiment, Wiley Futrell, of the same command, Wilson Jackson and Archy W. Clinarw
Federal Side.-Of the Federal side little remains to be said. Besides a portion of Company F, Forty-eighth Regiment of Kentucky Infantry, commanded by Capt. Charles E. Van Pelt, and a "Home Guard" company of forty or fifty men under Capt. H. E. Luton, Trigg County had no regular organization in the Federal army.
Company F was composed of about 100 men, only a part of whom were from Trigg, and was additionally officered as follows : First Lieutenant, Bluford Rogers; Second Lieutenant. Charles Adams; Third Lieutenant, not known. The operations of the company were confined to southwestern Kentucky. doing guard and post duty, and, besides a little skirmish at Hopkinsville, were never in a fight.
Capt. Luton's company was raised principally from "between the rivers," and did little other duty than guard the line of telegraph between Fort Donelson and Princeton. They were never engaged in any action of importance.
Of course there were others from Trigg County on the Union side, but they were scattered out into other commands, and no record is to be found of them. It is possible as many as 200 in all represented Trigg on the Federal side.
Besides those mentioned the Adjutant-General's report gives the names of the following additional officers: Robert V. Grinter, Captain Eighth Regiment Kentucky Cavalry; W. J. McKee, First Lieutenant Seventeenth Regiment Kentucky Cavalry ; W. Randolph, Assistant Surgeon Eighth Regiment; and William Randolph, Surgeon of the Forty-eighth Regiment Kentucky Infantry.
Though there were a number of individual or personal encounters on Trigg soil there were no organized fights or important skirmishes, and the only occurrence worth recording was in connection with the burning of the court house at Cadiz. In the month of December, 1864, a small company of Confederates, some forty or fifty in number, under Capt. Cole of Lyon's Brigade, learning of the presence of a detachment of negro troops, who were barricaded in the court house at Cadiz, determined to attack and capture them. Under the escort of an intelligent citizen guide they moved rapidly and quietly on the place from the direction of Canton, but on reaching the Dover road near the town learned that the enemy had already passed down that road. Wheeling down the road they followed in pursuit, and about nightfall came up with them near the J. S. McCalister farm, about two and a half miles from Cadiz. The negroes, some 150 in number, scattered out in every direction, a number of them taking protection in a barn on the premises. A few shots were exchanged, but for some reason not known the Confederates drew off, and beyond a few negroes wounded and the capture of Lieut. Schuyler and twelve or fifteen of his men, there were no other results. Cole rode on into Cadiz, where he spent the night. Next morning, ostensibly to prevent the spread of small-pox, which had been introduced into the building by the negroes, and also prevent the enemy from again using it as a place of defense, he gave orders to his men to fire the court house. A number of negroes were gathered in from the town, and the roof and cupola torn away in order to prevent the flames from spreading. On going up into the second story a negro soldier with confluent small-pox, who had been deserted by his comrades and left to die, was found at the head of the stairway where he had dragged himself. Cole caused the invalid to be shot. The excuse given for the act is that the negro was already in a dying condition, and if left on the sidewalk would spread the loathsome disease among the people. The building was then set fire to, and after its destruction Cole and his men withdrew from the town.
It only remains to be said of the people of Trigg who remained at home, both Southern and Union, that they lived in comparative peace with each other. They strove rather to protect than to expose each other to military aggressions and persecutions from either side. The following incident is to the point, and illustrates the spirit of the times in Trigg Mr. R. D. Baker, of Cadiz, an ardent Union man, was known to have a large sum of money in his possession, and one of his neighbors, Mr. M. A. Smith, an equally ardent Southern man, was approached by a guerilla and desperado, and solicited to assist in its forcible capture. Smith knowing the desperate character of his tempter, and in order to deceive and throw him off his guard, acceded to the proposition. Seeking Baker at once, he notified him of the danger, and urged him to remove the money from the premises forthwith. This Baker did, and much to Smith's surprise and dismay, tendered to him the package with the sententious remark: There, Smith, keep it for me till I call for it." It is needless to say the confidence so frankly reposed was never abused, and the money, every dollar of it, was promptly returned when all danger had passed. The package is said to have contained 10,000.
A well-known citizen of Cadiz relates that on one occasion he was arrested by the Federal authorities, and carried to prison at Louisville on a false charge. Without solicitation, one of his Union neighbors, Squire P. H. Grinter, by a little diplomacy, secured the necessary papers for his release and at once followed to the city. Presenting his credentials to the General in command, and vouching for the character and innocence of his friend, he soon had him released from prison and safely on his way home. When afterward proffered the amount of his expenses to and from the city, he indignantly declined with the remark: " It's a poor friend who would not do as much for his neighbor." The same worthy citizen, with Mr. R. D. Baker, mentioned above, was, on more than one occasion instrumental in securing the release of Southern sympathizers from Fort Donelson.
These friendly and neighborly acts were generously reciprocated by their Southern friends, whenever the Confederates were in possession, and but few instances of reprisal or retaliation against Union people took place during the war.
Both sides agreed to disagree in mere matters of opinion, and wisely left the fighting to the soldiers in the field. Had other portions of the State been guided by the same wise counsels, they would have been spared on many occasions the bitterness and humiliation of lex talionis that fell with a heavy hand upon both person and property. All honor to both Union and Southern men of Trigg, for their moderation and forbearance. Not a dollar of indemnity or blackmail was ever collected from them by the satraps of either side.-J. 11. Tydings.
*- County of Trigg Kentucky , HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL - EDITED BY WILLIAM HENRY PERRIN - ILLUSTRATED. - F.A. BATTEY PUBLISHING CO. 1884.
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