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CERULEAN SPRINGS is voting precinct No. 7, and occupies the northeast corner of Trigg County, with the following boundaries, to wit: Christian County on the north and east, Montgomery Precinct on the south, and Caldwell County on the west. The general character of the land is what might be termed undulating, and as an agricultural district it stands second to but few divisions of the county. The soil is principally ;is red loam resting upon an impervious clay subsoil, and well adapted to all the fruits and cereals indigenous to this part of the State. Limestone of a fine quality is found in many parts of the precinct, and along the banks of the streams are large sandstone bluffs which afford an inexhaustible supply of building material. Much of the stone has been utilized by the farmers in the construction of chimneys and in building foundations for houses and barns. The precinct was originally well timbered, the leading varieties being walnut and the several species of oak, with cedar on the rocky knolls and along the bluffs of the water-courses. Much valuable timber was ruthlessly destroyed in an early day by the settlers in clearing their farms, and a large area of that which is standing at the present time is of comparatively recent growth.

The principal water-course is the Muddy Fork of Little River which enters the precinct from the northeast, and flowing in a southwesterly course crosses the southern boundary not far from the Caldwell County line.

It is a stream of considerable importance, and receives in its course several small affluent, none of which are designated by any particular name.

Farming is the chief occupation of the people, the principal crops being corn, wheat and tobacco. Considerable attention is paid to stock-growing, which promises to become the leading industry at no distant day.

Settlement.-The neighborhood of the Springs is one of the oldest settled portions of what is now Trigg County, and must have had a begin-ning at a very early day after the visit of the North Carolina and Virginia Commissioners in 1790 and 1800. The first settlers were attracted thither no doubt by the heavy growth of timber rather than by the productive properties of the soil, the thick undergrowth of cane, grapevines, haw bushes, etc., affording a fine covert for such game as deer, elk, bear, which afforded the early corners their principal means of subsistence. Early in the year 1780 a small company of emigrants might have been seen making their toilsome journey slowly across the hills and through the unbroken forests of South Carolina and Tennessee toward the then insignificant settlement of Nashville. This little band was well organized and armed in order to repel the attack of savages who at that time were very hostile toward the whites, and gave them every possible annoyance. It might be interesting to state that the leader of this party was a man who afterward became the popular hero of New Orleans and the iron-willed President of the United States-Andrew Jackson. In the same company was one Robert Goodwin, who had been a companion of Jackson's in his younger days, and who now under his leadership was with his family going to seek a home in the rich and newly-settled Tennessee country. After a long and perilous journey the hardy emigrants reached their destination and were obliged to take refuge in the block-hou8e at Nashville until the Indian hostilities ceased, which was not until about a year and a half later. In 1792 or 1793.Samuel Goodwin and his family, together with a few spirits as hardy and daring as himself, left the Nashville settlement and came to Kentucky. Goodwin found his way into what is now Trigg County, and settled a short distance from Cerulean Springs on what is known as the Gardner farm, where he erected a diminutive log-cabin and cleared a small farm.

This in all probability was the first permanent white settlement in the county east of the Cumberland River, although it is claimed by some that a few cabins had been built previous to this time near Boyd's Landing or Canton. With Goodwin came his sons Samuel and Jesse, both of whom were men grown. The former settled about one mile above the Springs, where his son Robert Goodwin now lives, while the latter improved the land now known as the Wake place, near the village, on which he resided until the year 1825. Robert Goodwin, Sr., died prior to 1812. Samuel was an honored citizen until the time of his death in the year 1848. His son Robert Goodwin, Jr., was born in the year 1811, and has lived on the old homestead continuously from that time to the present. He is one of the oldest residents of the county, and justly esteemed one of its most intelligent and honored citizens. A man by name of Spencer came to the county a few months after Goodwin's arrival and settled on land adjoining the latter's place. Spencer was the father of two sons, James and George, both of whom achieved some reputation in an early day as mechanics, and much of the furniture used by the first settlers was made by them. Another very early settler whose arrival antedates 1795 was James Daniel, who located about one and a half miles east of the farm now owned by J. Stewart. His sons Elijah, John and George came the same time and figured as prominent citizens at a later day. George became Sheriff of the county in 1830. John Blakely settled two miles southeast of the Springs as early as 1792, and was joined soon after by William Johnson and John Roberts, both of whom came from South Carolina. Joel Thompson was among the first pioneers, and made a home on land adjoining the old Goodwin farm. John Goode settled on Dry Fork one and a half miles from the Springs prior to 1800, and was one of the earliest magistrates in the county. Jacob Stinebaugh came in an early day and settled where his son Daniel lives, a short distance from the Springs. The latter was born on the place where he now resides, and has been a citizen of the precinct for seventy-five years.

Among other very early corners were Benjamin Ladd, Elisha Harber, John Jones, Richard Stowe, Robert Rogers, H. Hayden, John MeAtee and James Brownfield, all of whom located within a radius of three miles of the village. Later came David Haggard, John Guthrie and his sons Vincent, Patrick, Jesse and Erby, William, James and John Blanks, Samuel Campbell, Wiley Wilson, Joel Wilson, William Wilson, Seth Pool, Adam Thompson and J. Pool.

Early Events.-The first death in this precinct as far as known was a man by name of Upton, who died prior to the year 1804. He was the first person buried in the Guthrie Graveyard. Robert Goodwin, Sr., and Jesse Goodwin died in a very early day, and were among the first laid to rest in what is known as the Military Cemetery. Balaam Izell was the first person interred in the Thomas graveyard, his death having occurred prior to 1820. Among the very early marriages were the following:

John Goodwin and Elizabeth Griffith, Joseph Goodwin and a Miss Edwards, Gustin Cook and Mary Goodwin, David Martin and Martha Goodwin, Josiah Blakely and Elizabeth Goodwin, Richard McAtee and Anna Goodwin. In the year 1806 Jackson Daniel, son of James Daniel, was born, and a year later Samuel, son of Robert Goodwin, Sr., was ushered into the world. These as far as known were the first births that occurred in what is now Cerulean Precinct. Other early births were, Green Daniel born in 1808, Leah Goodwin in 1809, Lewis Daniel in 1810, Benjamin Woodson, John and Harry Goode, sons of John Goode, prior to 1812, and Robert Goodwin, Jr., in 1811.

Mills and Other Industries. - The first settlers were obliged to undergo many hardships during the early days of the country, and for a0 number of years wild game and a coarse bread made from pounded corn was the daily bill of fare. The nearest mill where meal could be obtained was on Red River, fifty miles away, and it was a very rude and imperfect affair. Small horse-mills were erected as the population increased, and were kept running constantly in order to supply the growing demand for meal. The first mill of this kind was erected by James Brownfield, and stood on the farm now owned by the Richardson heirs. It was in operation for a number of years, and did a thriving business for a mill of its capacity.

The first water-mill in the precinct was built by Jesse Goodwin about one mile above Cerulean Springs, on Muddy Fork. It was erected about the year 1797, and stood until the year 1800, at which time it was washed away by an overflow of the creek. The next water-mill was erected a number of years later by a Mr. Butler, and stood a short distance above the first named. It ground both wheat and corn, and seems to have been extensively patronized in an early day by the settlers in this and adjacent territory. It passed through several hands and underwent many improvements, and was abandoned about sixteen years ago on account of the dam having been destroyed by a freshet. In the year 1870 G. G. Goodwin built a combination saw and grist-mill on Muddy Fork, at a point between the two mentioned. Two years later it was washed out, since which time no mills have been operated in the precinct.

Among the early industries of this part of the county was a distillery operated by Jacob Stinebaugh about the year 1800. The first blacksmith in the precinct was one IJriah Cato, who ran a shop on the Goodwin farm a few years after the arrival of the first settlers. A second distillery was started by John Rogers, who did a good local business as early as 1812. One of the first orchards in the county was set out by Samuel Goodwin soon after he came to the country.

Schools.-The early schools of Kentucky were supported by subscription, and were few and far between. Many of the first settlers were men of limited culture, and did not seem to appreciate the advantages of education, and as a consequence many years elapsed before schools became general throughout the country. A man by name of Maxwell is thought to have been the first pedagogue in what is now Cerulean Precinct, as it is known that he taught a little school in the winter of 1803-4. Another early teacher was William Bradley, who wielded the birch in the old log church the same year of its erection, 1806. Other schools were taught in private dwellings from time to time, and it was not until a comparatively recent period that houses were erected especially for school purposes. Among the earliest teachers are remembered J. Pool, R. Jones, and a man by name of Knight; the last-named came from Massachusetts, and seems to have been a man of splendid acquirements and an excellent instructor.

Religious-The pioneer church of Trigg County was the Baptist, and among the earliest Preachers were Elders Dorris and S. Brown, who preached from house to house as early as the years 1795 and 1800. The first society was the Muddy Fork Baptist Church, which dates its organization from the year 1806, at which time it was constituted as an arm of an older organization known as the Eddy Grove Church, in Caldwell County. Among the earliest members were Samuel Goodwin, Jesse Goodwin, Benjamin Ladd, John Goode and wife, Samuel Goodwin, Jr., Robert Rogers and wife, B. Sizemore and wife, Anderson Sizemore, Benjamin Vincent and William Snelling. The first house of worship was a small log structure erected in 1806. It stood until 1836, at which time it was torn away and replaced by a substantial frame house, which is still in use. The pastors and regular supplies of the church since its organization have been the following: Elders Fielding Wolfe, Reuben Rowland, Peyton Nance (who was pastor for over twenty years), John Gammon, and Hezekiah Smith, the present incumbent. It is a point in the Little River Association, and numbers about sixty-five or seventy members at the present time.

Cerulean Missionary Baptist Church was organized about the year 1858, with a membership of forty persons, a number which has since increased to 160. A beautiful temple of worship was erected soon after the organization on land donated by Col. Philip Anderson, one of the most influential and active members of the society. This house was a frame structure, 40x60 feet, and cost the sum of $3,400. It was burned in the year 1867, and soon thereafter the present edifice was built at a cost of $1,000.

The following pastors have ministered to the church in the order named: William Gregston, W. Meacham and James Spurlin, the last named being Preacher in charge at the present time. Village of (Cerulean Springs.-T hi a neat little hamlet is situated in the western part of the precinct on Muddy Fork and occupies one of the most romantic and beautiful spots in Trigg County. Indeed, it would be difficult to find within the bounds of the entire state a location embracing as many pleasing features and enjoying such a healthful climate. The chief attraction is a spring of never-failing water of a milky white appearance and strongly impregnated with mineral properties. The following sketch was written by Maj. McKinney in his reminiscences of the county : "The waters of these springs have attracted the attention of the humble and the scientific from their earliest discovery. The first settlers of the county had a high appreciation of them, because, when almost overcome by thirst and heat they could drink to satiety without oppression. Well-beaten tracks, coming from all directions, led to these springs long before there were any distinguishable pathways to any other point in the county, and invalids for their curative properties sought relief from these waters before the beginning of the present century.

"A careful analysis of the water has been made by a number of distinguished chemists. It is highly spoken of by all as a most delightful water, not only as a beverage, but also for its fine medicinal properties. The temperature is fifty-six degrees Fahrenheit, while that of the air is eighty degrees. It issues at the rate of one gallon or one and a half gal. ions per minute. The spring is strongly impregnated with both sulphate and chloride of magnesia with soda, bicarbonate of lime and free sulphuretted hydrogen. Up to 1812 the water was much more strongly impregnated with iron than it is to-day, and the magnesia that gives it the white milky appearance was never observed until after the 'shakes' of February, 1812." 

"Among the first owners of the old spring tract was Richard Stow, who transferred it to Kinchan Killabrew, and he to Joseph Caldwell. Killabrew erected some rude log-cabins on the premises for the comfort of invalid visitors about 1819, which were added to as necessity required afterward, until the property, finally falling into the hands of Henry Crow, began about the years 1834-1835 to attain some little celebrity under the more euphonious and pretentious appellation of a watering place. In 1835 Mr. Crow disposed of the property to Col. Philip H. Anderson, who commenced at once a more tasteful and elaborate system of improvement, only, however, to be checked again in a very short time by discovering a vital defect in his title. This having been at last perfected, the ownership of the property in 1880 passed into the possession of the present owners, Messrs. White and Harper. These gentlemen are both possessed of ample means. They are liberal and enterprising, and are determined to spare no expense in making it one of the most pleasant and attractive places of summer resort in the West." A large, commodious hotel capable of receiving several hundred guests has been erected, with a number of outer buildings for servants, washing, cooking, etc., which add very much to the comfort and appearance of the place.

The village numbers about 100 inhabitants, and its future outlook is encouraging from the fact that a railroad will soon be completed through the county, thus affording easy communication with the principal cities of the State. The business of the village is represented at the present time by three general stores and one blacksmith shop. Drs. A. B. Culloin and B. F. Felix practice the healing art in the town and adjacent country. 

Wallonia Precinct.-Wallonia is voting precinct No. 6, and was named in honor of Maj. Braxton Wall, one of the early settlers and prominent citizens of Trigg County. The topographical features of this division of the county are agreeably varied. The surface is undulating or gently rolling and affords ample facilities for drainage without any waste lands, while from the tops of any of the slight knolls or ridges, the eye is delighted with miles of corn, wheat and tobacco fields diversified with rich pastures and beautiful woodland. The soil is mostly a yellowish and reddish. clay, the decomposition of carboniferous lime rock imparted by rivers anciently flowing at this level. It is rich in tree food and was originally clothed in dense forests of oak, hickory, maple and other varieties. Immense quantities of blue limestone are found in various parts of the precinct, and clear, cold springs are numerous. Beautiful cedar groves have of late years sprung up on the rocky knolls, and their brilliant green against the somber trunks of deciduous groves lends a pleasing variety to the scene. Muddy Fork and Dry Creek are the principal water-courses. Bingham's Branch and several small rivulets traverse the country in various directions, but the majority of them contain running water only a part of the year.

The Pioneers. --- It would be difficult to determine who was the first white man to settle in this part of the country as there is but little definite information accessible of that early period. It is known that William Barton, Hezekiah Watkins and his father-in-law, Robert Wade, Daniel Cameron, William Hagerty, Maj. Braxton Wall, S. Dunning and Hardiman Dunning were living within the present boundaries of the precinct as early as 1820. Barton settled on Muddy Fork about one mile below Wallonia Village. Watkins settled where his son now lives, and Cameron located east of the Wade and Watkins settlements.

Maj. Wall was perhaps the most prominent man in the neighborhood. He was a native of Virginia, but in an early day emigrated to Tennessee, from which State he moved to this county. He started the first store in Wallonia, and was also the pioneer mill builder in the precinct. He died prior to 1844. A man by name of Hansbarger was one of the earliest corners, and settled near the village. Benjamin Faulkner settled where D. D. Wall now lives; David Jennings and William McDaniel, on portions of what now comprises the present plantation of Thomas Boyd. Levi Dunning,a relative of Hardirnan Dunning, settled west of the creek in an early day on the farm still in possession of members of his family. Among others who came when the country was young and who participated in the trials and hardships of pioneer life were Custis Gray, a man by name of Kennedy and his son Josiah, Irwin and John Brandon and John Wall, brother of Brax ton Wall; Thomas and D. D. Wall, Sons of John Wall, came with their father to the new country, and for fifty-six years have been leading citizens of the precinct. Other names could be added to those enumerated, but the space of this chapter forbids a further mention.

Mills and Distilleries.-The first mill in the precinct was built by Maj. Wall in the year 1825 or 1826, and stood on Muddy Fork a short distance below Wallonia Village. This was a combination mill-made lumber and ground grain-and did a thriving business during the time it was in operation. A few years after its erection the mill was moved further down the stream under the following circumstances: "Before erecting his mill Mr. Wall made an effort to buy the privilege of building a darn across the mouth of the Lee Dunning Spring, as Bingham & Kevil did before building their mill, but Mr. Kennedy, who owned the property, persistently refused. The result was that upon the completion of the dam at the Wall Mill the whole body of water except at flood time found an outlet through Kennedy's Creek, affording a much better mill seat on the creek than the one Maj. Wall had selected. So old man Kennedy immediately went to work and built him a handsome little water-mill on the creek. Old man Wall kept dark until Kennedy got his mill completed and started off in fine style, when all of a sudden he tore away his dam and moved his mill a mile lower down the river. This left Kennedy's Mill high and dry, and the only alternative left was for him to convert it into a horse-mill." The present mill was erected by Messrs. Bingham & Kevil in 1873, and stands on the site of the old Wall Mill. The building is a large two-story frame, and the proprietors are doing an extensive custom and merchant business.

The first distillery in the precinct was put in operation by Maj. Wall about the year 1824 or 1825, and stood on what is known as Bingham's Spring Branch. Mr. Wall did a fine local business, and had the reputation of making a fine article of the "0 be joyful " The Dunnings operated a small distillery as early as 1823, but seem to have done but a very limited business.

Wallonia Village.-The history of this little city dates from about the year 1837, at which time Maj. Wall erected a commodious storehouse on the lot where the Wallace building now stands, and himself and William Gray, of Princeton, formed a copartnership under the title of Wall & Gray, and in the spring opened up a heavy stock of miscellaneous merchandise.. They continued in business until the fall of 1838, when not meeting with the success they anticipated, they disposed of the remnant of the stock to Abner R. Terry and Samuel McKinney. The latter firm, with means to prosecute an extensive business for that day, opened up a large stock, and ere long their business swelled in proportion far beyond their original expectations or hopes. Their sales during the years 1841 and 1842 aggregated $27,000 per year. A post office was established and Mr. McKinney appointed Postmaster. The mail route was from Princeton by way of Wallonia through Cadiz and on to Clarksville. William Wallace was the contractor and mail carrier. McKinney & Terry sold out to Josiah S. Gardner and Lewis McCain, who did a successful business for a number of years. About this time John A. McCain commenced a small grocery business, and in a few years with 0. T. Gardner and J. R. Hays bought out the firm of Gardner & McCain. Mr. McCain remained in active business for a number of years. Among the different merchants of the place were S. W. Gray, Jones & Harper, G. W. Dunning, W. J. Wilson, Mr. Wolfe, D. W. Kennedy and William S. (Joy. The present business men of the village are Dyer & Hayden, the Bran-don Brothers, Hopson and W. H. Porneroy. The medical profession has been represented by the following disciples of Esculapius: Drs. Wall, Allison, Foster, Pool, Standrod and Lindsay.

Wallonia Christian Church.-The first meetings by the church known as Christians or Disciples were held in the village schoolhouse in 1 1849 by Elder John Ferguson, who preached at intervals thereafter for several years. In 1852 a permanent organization was effected with the following members, to wit: J. B. Wall, Harriet C. Wall, A. C. Mart, Eva-line H. Mart, Elizabeth J. Swatawell, William S. Coy, Virginia S. Coy, Elizabeth Wall, D. D. Wall, Mary E. Wall, E. N. Amoss and Ann Amoss. The first officers of the church were J. B. Wall and E. N. Amoss, Bishops; A. C. Mart and D. D. Wall, Deacons; William S. Coy, Clerk. The organization was brought about by the labors of Elder Enoch Brown, of Christian County, who preached for the congregation two years. There was no regular preaching there until 1865, the church in the meantime meeting for social service each Lord's day, and depending upon such transient ministers as happened to be passing by. In 1865 steps were taken to build a house of worship. Prior to that time public worship was held in the schoolhouse and private dwellings. In connection with the Masonic Lodge a house was erected at a cost of $1,741. During the year 1865 Elder R. Dulin preached for the congregation once a month. The next pastor was Elder Giddens, who remained but a few months. He was succeeded by Elder B. Metcalf who preached till 1875. J. W. Higbee came next and remained one year. Other preachers who visited the church at different times were Elders Street, Ferguson, Hancock, Mobley, Howard, Marshall, Anderson, Keith, Albert Mills, James Mills, Long, Hatchett, Gass, Waltha M, Lindsay, Lucas, Dimmit, Hardin, Trimble, Johason and Marshall. Present officers : E.N. Amoss, Elder; Samuel Hopson and Thomas Amoss, Deacons. The society is in good condition, and numbers about seventy members.

Mount Zion Methodist Episcopal Church.-The history of this organization dates back to the year 1832, at which time a small class was established at the residence of Robert Hawkins, about two miles from the village of Wallonia. Among the original members of the society were Robert Hawkins and family, Peter Wade and family, Jesse Adams and family, Erwin Brandon and family, Isaac Husk and wife, Lewis Husk and family and Jackson Huston. Meetings were held for four years at the dwellings of Robert Hawkins and Jesse Adams, and at the end of that time a house of worship was erected on a lot donated to the church by Erwin Brandon. This building was a log structure, and stood where the present edifice stands. It was in use until 1848, at which time a new frame building was erected, the same that is still standing. The building is 40x36 feet in size, and with improvements added since its erection represents a capital of about $1,000.

The society was first attached to the Little River Circuit, and later became a prominent point on the Circuit of Wallonia. It belongs to the Cadiz Circuit at present.

The following preachers have ministered to the church, to wit: Lewell Campbell, Elijah Sutton, Robert Turner, James Bristow, Abraham Long, Abraham Quick, Dr. William Randolph, Thomas Randolph, P. T. Harderson, Richard Love, T. Peters, James Bigum, P. E. Edwards and J. C. McDaniel, the last named being pastor in charge at the present time.

Present officers are: James Richardson, Robert Wade, David Hancock, T. C. Brandon and J. R. Watkins, Trustees; James Richardson, Robert Wade, Jabez Bingham and C. R. Watkins, Stewards; Jesse Cameron and J. R. Watkins, Class Leaders. The organization is in flourishing condition at the present time, and numbers about 110 communicants. A good Sunday-school is maintained under the efficient superintendency of H. T. Watkins, assisted by W. H. Rector.

There is a Masonic lodge in the village, also a society of the Chosen Friends, both of which are in a healthy condition. We, however, failed to obtain particulars of them. 

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